A few scanning tips

by Wayne Fulton

The Scanning section is BELOW


A few attempts to clarify some mysteries about the basics of flash and digital photography, hopefully helpful. More detail for those interested, more about how the details actually work (which is good to know when you're ready). A little of it is Nikon specific, however almost all subjects are general, not affected by brand.

Flash Fundamentals We Must Know


Inverse Square Law

Guide Numbers   (with calculator)

Bounce Flash, and TTL Flash Compensation

Camera Distance Does Not Affect Exposure

Continuous light vs. Flash - Shutter Speed

Other Differences, Continuous vs Flash

Maximum Shutter Sync Speed

HSS - Auto FP flash mode - What is it?

What is Soft Light?

What Hot Shoe Flashes Do

Flash pictures are Double Exposures - Important

Flash Outdoors - Fill Flash in Sunlight

Flash Indoors - Factors affecting TTL metering exposure

Auto ISO - for flash?

Rear Curtain Sync - for Blur from Ambient Motion Trails

Matching White Balance of Room Lights - Colored Filters on Flash

Essential Fundamentals About Digital Images

Pixels, Printers, Video - What's With That?   Basic Fundamentals

Image Resize - Cropping, Resampling, Scaling   and Aspect Ratio

White Balance Correction   Click on White things

Why Should I Shoot Raw?   It's the easy way to go

What are JPG losses?   JPG Artifacts


How Light Meters Work  (maybe not as assumed)

Details about Metering Principles (including TTL)

A Histogram is Not a Light Meter  Incident vs. Reflected meters

18% Gray Card - What's the Idea?

EV - Exposure Value  and Chart

Sunny 16 Rule of exposure

Do I need a handheld light meter?  Sekonic L308S

Surprises in the Use of Histograms   Avoid the camera single gray histogram

Histograms are Gamma Encoded  The numbers may not be what you think

What and Why is Gamma?  (with calculator).


A Beginners Guide to Select a Hot Shoe Flash     Part 2, chart

Comparing Power of Flashes with Guide Number Ratings

Review of Yongnuo YN-565EX Speedlight ($84)

Review of Aperlite YH-700N Speedlight ($90)

Review of Neewer NW-985N Speedlight ($63)

Review of Neewer VK750 II Speedlight ($53).

Nikon TTL BL with D-Lens Distance   Zoom lens distance accuracy is poor

Third Party Flash Brands Bypass D-Lens Distance Problems

Speedlight AA Batteries

Comparisons of Optical Slave Triggers   (for the SB-600 too)

Speed of Flash Units for High Speed Photography

Nikon TTL history - TTL, D-TTL, iTTL


What Umbrellas Do

Mounting Speedlights in Umbrellas

Standard 45 Degree Portrait Lighting Setup

Nikon CLS Commander Wireless Remote Flash System (AWL)

Lighting Kits for Home Setups   Flash is good for Portraits

Which is Softer, Reflected or Shoot-through Umbrellas?

The Main Trick is to Learn to Actually "See" the Lighting

Comparing Properties of Speedlights vs Studio Lights

Methods to Trigger Flashes


Scanning Thousands of old Slides with a digital camera

f/stops and shutter speeds  Understanding the numbers

Depth of Field  Want to Blur the Background?

Field of View  Lens and sensor

Crop Factor, Equivalent Focal Length

Have we hit a megapixel limit?

Diffraction Limited Pixels?   Really?

Memory Card Speed   How much do we need?

Camera Exif Data   Need a good Exif viewer?

Good Books on Flash Photography

Photo Editor Curve Tool   (compared with Levels)

Solenoid Valve for Water Drop photography

Calculators, with additional features

Compare EV difference of Two:
Camera Exposures  f/stop, shutter, or ISO values
Power of Flashes from Guide Numbers Distances due to Inverse Square Law
DPI calculator - Printing and Scanning resolution Field of View calculator
Guide Number calculator with "Total exposure" Nominal and Precise f/stops, Shutter and ISO
HSS Guide Number calculator New for HSS Percentage Fill Flash for TTL Flash Compensation EV
Depth of Field and blurring the background Calculate Gamma
Crop Factor calculators Slide Copy, image size and resolution
Calculate EV, and EV chart with third stops Convert Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB
Determine Distance or Size of object in image Maximum Image Size from Megapixels
Milky Way exposure time on fixed mount Calculate Airy Disk diffraction
Calculate camera shake in pixels (just for fun)


This scanning material is about the basics of scanning, still very valid, however digital camera photos are already scanned, so to speak (meaning, first preference is to use your original file if you have it). The purpose is to offer some scanning tips and to explain the basics for photos and documents. It is also about the fundamentals of digital images, about the basics to help you get the most from your images from your scanner and camera. How it works, for those that want to know.

Included here are the general questions that we've all asked about digital images. The material is about the basics, and is appropriate for the beginner. The content is certainly not superficial, but it is not at all difficult either, it is just simply about how it works. It describes in plain language the things we need to know to be efficient and get the most from our images, in the various ways that we can use them.

Many newbies want to scan a photo at the greatest possible resolution. We'll explain why that's the wrong answer, with tips about how to choose a more appropriate answer. That and many other scanning basics are covered here, and it's intended to be a fast jump start to aid newcomers to graphics and scanning. There will be a little technique to learn, but when you've seen it once, then it's rather simple.

Never used a scanner before?

Evaluating Scanner Features

Quick Summary of Digital Basics

Scanning / Printing dpi Calculator

Scanning 101
The Basics

START * Fundamental Concepts

Video Resolution - How much to scan?

Say No to 72 dpi - It's a false notion

Color, Bits, image size, memory cost

Images for television or PowerPoint

Printing Resolution - Scaling and Resampling

Finding the Scaling and Resampling Menus

Printer Resolution - How much to scan?

Line art and Threshold - Copy, OCR, Text

Line art and Grayscale

Scanning for Fax

Descreen to remove Moiré Interference
    Images in printed media

Interpolated Resolution

Photo Resolution - How much can we scan?

Image File Formats - Which format?

Transparent Media Adapter - 35 mm slides?

What about Film Scanners?

A few Links to Other scanning sites

A few Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

Scanning 201

A Simple Way to Get Better Scans


UnSharp Mask sharpening

Curve Tool

Clone Tool

Restoration of Genealogical Photos

Correction of Faded Slides

A few Typical (discontinued)
Scanner Software

Acer Mirascan

HP PrecisionScan LT

HP PrecisionScan

HP PrecisionScan Pro

Microtek ScanWizard 5

Microtek ScanWizard Pro 6

Minolta Scan Dual II

Polaroid 4000

Umax VistaScan

Umax MagicScan

VueScan - still going strong!

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Copyright © 1997-2018   by Wayne Fulton - All rights are reserved.

Please report ( Here ) any problems with the calculators, or with any aspect of any page. It will be very much appreciated, thank you.

I do try to help with questions about the basics or about my material, but I cannot help with the "what hardware to buy" or "my hardware doesn't work" questions, so those two email types probably get no response.